Ethiopia History – Facts, Timeline and Guide

yeha axum aksum

Ancient Greek scholars of history such as Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus used the word Aethiopia is utilized to denote to the people groups who live instantly to the south of old Egypt, specifically the region is presently known as the antiquated Kingdom of Kush, presently a portion of present-day Nubia in Egypt and Sudan, as well as all of Sub-continent Africa in common. The title Aethiopia is derived from the antiquated Greek terminology “Aethiops” (burned-look).

Ethiopia history begins prior to Aksum and D’mt. The power and fame of the country is stated in the bible with Egypt and Isreal. Ethiopia history has passed through various systems, from feudal to democratic to socialist and more in the millennia. Despite the change and the dark past and great ventures, the country has stayed as beautiful and unified. Today the country has more than 100 million people.

Overview of the History of Ethiopia

The kingdom of D’mt rose as one of the earliest civilizations in what is called the present territory of Ethiopia with its capital located in the ancient city of Yeha. Then another kingdom that rose into power and dominance on the red sea around the 1st century is the famous Aksumite kingdom.

Later in the early decades of the 4th century, the kingdom then converted to Christianity after subjugating the kingdoms of Meroe and Yemen. The Aksumite realm fell into decay with the rise of Islam within the Middle eastern landmass, which gradually moved exchange absent from the Christian Aksum.

The Aksumites (one of the first known Ethiopia history) gave way to the Zagwe Line, who later set up a modern capital at Lalibela sometime recently giving way to the Solomonic Line within the 13th century. Amid the early Solomonic era, Ethiopia went to military changes and royal extension that made it overwhelm the Horn of Africa. Portuguese ministers arrived at this time.

In 1529, the Adal Sultanate endeavored to prevail Abyssinia and met introductory victory; the Adal were provided by the Ottomans whereas Abyssinia has gotten Portuguese fortifications. By 1543, Abyssinia ad recovered a misplaced region but the war had debilitated both sides.

The Oromo individuals were able to extend into the good countries, overcoming both the Adal Sultanate and Abyssinia. The Portuguese nearness moreover expanded, whereas the Ottomans started to thrust into what is presently Eritrea, making the Habesh Eyalet.

An unused capital was set up at Gondar in 1632, and a period of peace and thriving followed until the nation was partly separated by warlords within the 18th century amid the Zemene Mesafint. Ethiopia was reunified in 1855 under the rule of Atse Tewodros II, starting Ethiopia’s present-day Ethiopia History and his rule was taken after by Yohannes IV who was murdered inactivity in 1889.

Beneath the rule of Menelik II Ethiopia begun its change to well-organized innovative headway and the structure that the nation has presently. Ethiopia moreover extended to the south and east, through the success of the western Oromo (presently Shoan Oromo), Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta, and other bunches, coming about within the borders of advanced Ethiopia. Ethiopia vanquished an Egyptian intrusion in 1876 and an Italian intrusion in 1896 which murdered 17,000 Ethiopians and came to be recognized as an authentic state by European powers.

A more fast modernization took put beneath Menelik II and Haile Selassie. Italy propelled a moment attack in 1935. From 1935-1941, Ethiopia was beneath Italian occupation as a portion of Italian East Africa. A joint drive of British and Ethiopian rebels overseen to drive the Italians out of the nation in 1941 and Haile Selassie was returned to the position of authority.

Ethiopia and Eritrea joined together in an alliance, but when Haile Selassie finished the alliance in 1961 and made Eritrea a territory of Ethiopia, the 30-year Eritrean War of Freedom broke out. Eritrea recaptured its autonomy after a choice in 1993.

Haile Selassie (recent Ethiopia History king) was toppled in 1974 and the battle-ready Derg Administration came to control. In 1977 Somalia attacked, attempting to attach the Ogaden locale, but was pushed back by Ethiopian, Soviet, and Cuban powers. In 1977 and 1978 the government tormented or murdered hundreds of thousands of suspected foes within the Ruddy Dread.

Ethiopia experienced starvation in 1984 that slaughtered one million individuals and a respectful war that brought about within the drop of the Derg in 1991. This came about within the foundation of the Government Law based Republic beneath Meles Zenawi. Ethiopia remains ruined, but its economy has ended up one of the world’s fastest-growing.

#The history of Ethiopia: overview

Dʿmt Ethiopia History

The one ancient kingdom known to have appeared in Ethiopia was the early kingdom of D’mt, with its capital at the city of Yeha, where a Sabaean fashion sanctuary was built around 700 BC. It rose to control around the 10th century BC. The D’mt kingdom was affected by the Sabaeans in Yemen. In any case, it isn’t known to what degree. 

Whereas it was once accepted that D’mt was a Sabaean colony, it is presently accepted that Sabaean impact was minor, constrained to many regions, and vanished after a couple of decades or a century, maybe speaking to an exchanging or military colony in a few sorts of beneficial interaction or military collusion with the civilization of Dʿmt or a few other proto-Aksumite states. Few engravings by or approximately this kingdom survive and exceptionally small archeological work has taken put.

Dʿmt Ethiopia History

yeha axum aksum
pre-Aksum Ethiopia history

Axumite Kingdom Ethiopia History

The primary unquestionable kingdom of extraordinary control to rise in Ethiopia was that of Axum within the 1st-century Advertisement. This was one of the numerous later kingdoms and dynasties to Dʿmt and was able to join together the northern Ethiopian Good countries starting around the 1st century BC.

They set up bases on the northern good countries of the Ethiopian Level and from there extended southward. The Persian devout figure Mani recorded Axum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four awesome powers of his time. The beginnings of the Axumite Kingdom are hazy.

Christianity was presented into the nation by Frumentius, who was sanctified, to begin with, religious administrator of Ethiopia by Holy person Athanasius of Alexandria around 330. Frumentius changed over Ezana, who cleared out a few engravings enumerating his rule both sometime recently and after his change.

The degree of Ezana’s control over Yemen is questionable. Although there’s small prove supporting Aksumite control of the locale at that time, his title, which incorporates ruler of Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan (all in modern-day Yemen), together with gold Aksumite coins with the engravings, “ruler of the Habshat” or “Habashite”, demonstrate that Aksum might have held a few legitimate or genuine balance within the area.

Toward the near of the 5th century, an incredible company of friars known as the Nine Holy people is accepted to have built up themselves within the nation. Since that time, religion has been a control among individuals, and not without its impact on the course of events.

The Axumite Kingdom is recorded once more as controlling portion – in case not all – of Yemen within the 6th century.

A few individuals accepted the conclusion of the Axumite Kingdom is as much of a secret as its starting. Missing a nitty-gritty Ethiopia History, the kingdom’s drop has been ascribed to a diligent dry spell, overgrazing, deforestation, torment, a move in exchange courses that diminished the significance of the Ruddy Sea—or a combination of these components.

The capital city of “the kingdom of Habash” was known as Jarma. Unless Jarma could be a moniker for Axum (speculatively from Ge’ez Girmaa, “surprising, respected”), the capital had moved from Axum to an unused location, however unfamiliar.

Axumite Kingdom Ethiopia History


Zagwe Dynasty of Ethiopia History

Almost 1000 (apparently c. 960, even though the date is questionable), a non-Christian princess, Yodit (“Gudit”, a play on Yodit meaning “fiendish”), planned to kill all the individuals of the illustrious family and build up herself as ruler.

Agreeing to legends, amid the execution of the royals, a  newborn child beneficiary of the Axumite ruler was carted off by a few reliable disciples and passed on to Shewa, where his specialist was recognized. Concurrently, Yodit ruled for forty a long time over the rest of the kingdom and transmitted the crown to her relatives.

In spite of the fact that parts of this story were most likely made up by the Solomonic Tradition to legitimize and run the show, it is known that a female ruler did overcome the nation at approximately this time. Precisely when the modern tradition came to control is obscure, as is the number of rulers within the tradition.

The engineering and design of the Zagwe civilization show a continuation of trends of earlier Aksumite traditions, as can be seen at Lalibela and Yemrehana Krestos Church. The building of Monolithic churches, which first was first observed in the late Aksumite era and proceeded into the Solomonic dynasty, reached its peak under the Zagwe.

The Zagwe tradition controlled a little range than the Aksumites or the Solomonic line, with its center within the Lasta locale. The Zagwe appear to have ruled over a for the most part tranquil state with a prospering urban culture, in differentiate to the more warlike Solomonids with their versatile capitals. David Buxton commented that the Zagwe accomplished ‘a degree of solidness and specialized headway rarely equaled in Ethiopia history ‘.

Zagwe Dynasty of Ethiopia History

Early Solomonic period (1270–1529)

Around 1270, a modern line was built up within the Abyssinian good countries beneath Yekuno Amlak, with help from neighboring Makhzumi Tradition removed the final of the Zagwe rulers and hitched one of his daughters.

Concurring to legends, the modern line was male-line relatives of Aksumite rulers, presently recognized as the proceeding Solomonic tradition (the kingdom being in this way reestablished to the scriptural regal house). This legend was made to legitimize the Solomonic tradition and was composed down within the 14th century within the Kebra Negast, an account of the roots of the Solomonic tradition.

Under the early Solomonic line Ethiopia locked in in military changes and royal extension which cleared out it overwhelming the Horn of Africa, particularly beneath the run the show of Amda Seyon I. There was moreover awesome imaginative and scholarly headway at this time, but moreover, a decrease in urbanization as the Solomonic heads didn’t have any settled capital, but or maybe moved around the domain in versatile camps.

Early Solomonic period (1270–1529)

The Abyssinian-Adal War Ethiopia History (1529–1543)

Between 1528 and 1540, the Adal Sultanate endeavored, beneath Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, to overcome the Ethiopian Domain. Entering, from the moo nation to the south-east, and overran much of the Ethiopian level, constraining the Head to require asylum within the mountain fastnesses. In this inaccessible area, the ruler once more turned to the Portuguese. João Bermudes, a subordinate part of the mission of 1520, who had remained within the nation after the flight of the government office, was sent to Lisbon. Bermudes claimed to be the appointed successor to the Abuna (archbishop), but his accreditations are debated.

In reaction to Bermudes message, a Portuguese armada beneath the command of Estêvão da Gama, was sent from India and arrived at Massawa in February 1541. Here he got an envoy from the Sovereign importuning him to send offer assistance against the Muslims, and within the July taking after a constrain of 400 musketeers, beneath the command of Cristóvão da Gama, more youthful brother of the chief of naval operations.

Walked into the insides, and being joined by local troops were at, to begin with, productive against the adversary; but they were hence crushed at the Fight of Wofla (28 Eminent 1542), and their chief commander captured and killed. On February 21, 1543, in any case, Al-Ghazi was shot and murdered within the Fight of Wayna Daga, and his powers were completely steered.

The Abyssinian-Adal War Ethiopia History (1529–1543)

Oromo Movements in Ethiopia History

The Oromo relocations were an arrangement of extensions within the 16th and 17th centuries by the Oromo individuals from southern regions of Ethiopia to more northern districts. The relocations had a serious effect on the Solomonic line of Abyssinia, as well as being the passing blow to the as of late crushed Adal Sultanate.

The relocations concluded in around 1710 when the Oromo prevailed in the kingdom of Ennarea within the Scoff region. In the 17th century, Ethiopian sovereign Susenyos I depended on Oromo back to pick up control and hitched an Oromo lady.

By the late 17th century, (some say as part of Ethiopia history) the Oromo had neighborly relations with the Amharas. So when sovereign Iyasu I attempted to assault the Oromo, he was persuaded by nearby Amharic rulers to back down. The Oromo too shaped political coalitions with already stifled individuals of Ethiopia, counting the Sidama individuals and the local people of Ennarea, Deride, and the Kingdom of Damot.

Oromo Movements in Ethiopia History

Gondarine Period of Ethiopia History

Gondar was a third stagnant capital (coming later to Aksum and Lalibela) of the Christian Kingdom was founded after a long period by Fasiladas in 1636. This city was admittedly the most important center of trade and business for the Christian Kingdom.

Gondar Ethiopia history

Upon the passing of Sovereign Susenyos and promotion of his child Fasilides in 1633, the Jesuits were ousted and the local religion reestablished to official status. Fasilides made Gondar his capital and built a castle there which would develop into the castle complex known as the Fasil Ghebbi, or Regal Walled in area.

Gondarine Period of Ethiopia History

Zemene Mesafint Ethiopia History

This period was, on one hand, a devout struggle between settling Muslims and conventional Christians, between nationalities they spoke to, and, on the other hand, between medieval masters on control over the central government. Some Ethiopia History specialists date the killing of Iyasu I, and the resultant decay within the glory of the tradition, as the starting of the Ethiopian Zemene Mesafint (“Period of the Rulers” in middle age Ethiopia history), a time of disputes and fights when the control of the government was overshadowed by the control of neighborhood chiefs.

Nobles came to manhandle their positions by making heads, and infringed upon the progression of the line, by candidates among the respectability itself: e.g. on the passing of Head Tewoflos, the chief nobles of Ethiopia dreaded that the cycle of retaliation that had characterized the rules of Tewoflos and Tekle Haymanot I would proceed on the off chance that a part of the Solomonic tradition was picked for the position of royalty, so they chose one of their claims, Yostos to be Negusa Nagast (lord of rulers) – be that as it may, his residency was brief.

When Iyoas expected the position of authority upon his father’s sudden passing, the nobles of Gondar were stunned to discover that he more promptly talked within the Oromo dialect instead of in Amharic, prioritized his maternal side’s Yejju relatives over the Qwarans of his grandmas family.

It is accepted that the control battle between the Qwarans driven by the Ruler Mentewab, and the Yejju Oromos driven by the Emperor’s mother Wubit was around to eject into an outfitted struggle. Ras Mikael Sehul was summoned to intercede between the two camps. He arrived and cleverly maneuvered to sideline the two rulers and their supporters making a offered for control for himself. Mikael settled before long as the pioneer of the Amharic-Tigrean (Christian) camp of the battle.

Mikael Sehul had compromised the control of the Sovereign, and from this point forward it lay ever more transparently within the hands of the incredible nobles and military commanders. This point of time has been respected as one begin of the Time of the Princes. An old and sick majestic uncle sovereign was enthroned as Sovereign Yohannes II. Ras Mikael before long had him killed, and underage Tekle Haymanot II was lifted to the throne.

Zemene Mesafint Ethiopia History (the history of Ethiopia)

Modern Ethiopia History (1855–1936)

Tewodros II and Tekle Giyorgis II (1855–1872)

Atse Tewodros (or Theodore) II was born Lij Kassa in Qwara, in 1818. His paternal figure was a little neighborhood chief, and his relative Dejazmach Kinfu was the sole representative of the areas of Dembiya, Qwara, and Chelga between Lake of Tana and the northwestern plains. Kassa misplaced his legacy upon the passing of Kinfu whereas he was still a youthful child.

After getting a conventional instruction in a nearby religious community, he went off to lead a band of desperados that meandered the nation in a Robin Hood-like presence. His abuses got to be broadly known, and his band of adherents developed consistently until he drove an imposing armed force. He turned his consideration to prevailing the remaining chief divisions of the nation, Gojjam, Tigray, and Shewa, which remained unsubdued.

In early 1868, the British drive looking for Tewodros’ yield, after he denied to discharge detained British subjects, arrived on the coast of Massawa. The British troops and Dajazmach Kassa otherwise known as Kassa Mircha came to an understanding in which Kassa would let the British pass through Tigray (the British were attending to Magdala which Tewodros had made his capital) in trade for cash and weapons.

Tewodros II and Tekle Giyorgis II (1855–1872)

Ethiopia history

Yohannes IV and Ethiopia History(1872–1889)

When Victoria, Ruler of the Joined together Kingdom, in 1867 fizzled to reply to a letter Tewodros II of Ethiopia had sent her, he took it as an offended and detained a few British inhabitants, counting the diplomat. An armed force of 12,000 was sent from Bombay to Ethiopia to protect the captured nationals, beneath the command of Sir Robert Napier. The Ethiopians were crushed, and the British raged the fortification of Magdala (presently known as Amba Mariam) on April 13, 1868.

The Italians presently came on the scene. Asseb, a harbor close the southern entrance of the Ruddy Ocean, had been bought from the nearby sultan in Walk 1870 by an Italian company, which, after securing more arrive in 1879 and 1880, was bought out by the Italian government in 1882. In 1887 Menelik ruler of Shewa attacked the Emirate of Harar after his triumph at the Fight of chelenqo.

In the meantime, Head Yohannes IV had been locked in with the dervishes, who had meanwhile gotten to be aces of the Egyptian Sudan, and in 1887 a massive fight followed at Gallabat, in which the dervishes, were beaten. But a stray bullet struck the ruler, and the Ethiopians chose to surrender. When the news of Yohannes’s passing comes to Sahle Maryam of Shewa, he broadcasted himself sovereign Menelik II of Ethiopia and gotten the accommodation of Begemder, Gojjam, the Yejju Oromo, and Tigray.

Yohannes IV (1872–1889)

Menelik II and Ethiopia History. (1889–1913)

On May 2 of that same year, Sovereign Menelik marked the Settlement of Wuchale with the Italians, giving them a parcel of Northern Ethiopia, the region that would afterward be Eritrea and portion of the territory of Tigray in return for the guarantee of 30,000 rifles, ammo, and cannons. The Italians informed the European powers that this settlement gave them a protectorate over all of Ethiopia. Menelik dissented, appearing that the Amharic form of the arrangement said no such thing, but his dissents were overlooked.

Menelik commissioned the first railway concession, from the coast at Djibouti (French Somaliland) to the core of the country in the capital, to a French company in 1894. The railway was completed to Dire Dawa, 45 kilometers (28 miles) from Harrar, by the last day of 1902.

While Menelik was the emperor, starting within the 1880s, Ethiopia set off from the central territory of Shoa, to join ‘the lands and individuals of the South, East and West into an empire’. The individuals joined were the western Oromo (non-Shoan Oromo), Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta, and other groups. He began extending his empire to the southern and eastern parts of the land, growing into zones and areas that had never been under his run the show, coming about within the borders of Ethiopia of nowadays.

Menelik II (1889–1913)

Ethiopia History After 1913

Ethiopia history passed through various systems in the last 100 years. Three of the government systems that stayed on power for long were the feudal, the socialist, and the capitalist type systems. Haile Sellisse, A known king in Ethiopia history lead country until the 70s until forcefully replaced by the socialist Derg government.

Socialist Ethiopia history is identified with horror and killings. The government-controlled everything and anyone against was gunned down. This period of Ethiopia history probably killed the economy that doesn’t recover until today.

The famine in Ethiopia history happened this time. Many died due to economic and political decisions.

A new party controlled the government with power. and formed a democratic government, only to stay in power for more than 20 years. Through this period of Ethiopia history, the democratic system was better and some development was noticeable. However, many argue that what the government did wrong exceeds what it did right.

In 2019, a team took power with an assignment from the party, and the party could not stay together. Internal issues and other political differences created disparity. However, a better system has been placed and many political prisoners have been released and many new ventures have been introduced.

Ethiopia is in similar but different stages of Ethiopia history. The future holds better hope that creates a better Ethiopia history.

#The history of Ethiopia: Beyond Menelik

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