A nation is made up of multiple elements to be sovereign, strong, and competent in the world arena. Tribes Ethiopia makes up most of the proportion compared to the other elements because that’s what makes a nation unique and special regarding language, culture, and tradition.
Ethiopian is well known for its diversified ethnic group’s settlement across the country. This ethnic group may arise out of many major tribes.
There are about 83 ethnic groups in the country which make the country one of those few countries that own multiple languages, culture, and traditions. In Africa, there are also so many tribes Ethiopia and ethnic groups.
Ethiopia is the second diversified and populated country in the continent next to Nigeria. Nigeria is the most diversified and populated country in the continent, there are more than 200 ethnic group and tribes Ethiopia which make the country rich in culture, language, and tradition.
Ethiopian custom, language, tradition, way of life and so many cultures is the combined output of each tribe.
Tribes Ethiopia: Culture
Nowadays there are some major foods, language, and cultural cloths which serve as the national icon and symbol which initially may be owned by some tribes. So, in the process of building a nation, tribes Ethiopiacontribute a lot of culture and tradition to be called the country as a whole.
It might be very hard to determine the real number of each tribe and
ethnic group in the country. Some of them are very small, for instance, their number could fall between 100 and 1000. Whereas the others have a population in millions.
The other factor which makes the determination of the number hard is their way of life. Many ethnic groups are nomadic and have no contact with the government and the rest of the world as well.
Tribes Ethiopia: Language
There are a few ethnic groups with any number of speakers and members. These tribes Ethiopia occupy more than half of the population of the country.
Oromo 34.5%, Amhara 26.9%, Somali 6.2%, Tigray 6.1% Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Wolayta 2.3% are those major groups with their population ratio.
Amhara Is the largest ethnic group next to Oromiya. One-fourth of the total population belong to this group. Their official language is the one of nation’s working languages called Amharic.
Tribes Ethiopia: Religion
It belongs to the afro Asiatic language category, the language is related to Geez which is literally the orthodox Christian language. Some scholars also relate the language with Arabic and Hebrew. They are located in the northern part of the country in a region called Amhara.
The group was highly dominant in the leading position or they were highly advanced in governing and leading the country when referred to history. The dominant religion in the region is Christianity and Islamism.
Tribes Ethiopia: Economy
About 90 % of the total population is a farmer and lives in rural
area. Corn, Malt, Barley, Sorghum, and teff are some of the major crop they produce.
Tribes Ethiopia: The Amhara
Their culture is rich in verbal folklore in the form of religious teaching
and saying, proverb, myth, and legends. This verbal folklores play a vital role in teaching and shaping society. Amhara’s family culture is patriarchal in which the male is the head of the family and take superiority over the female.
As they live in the cold and highland area their clothing is designed to
prevent heat loss. But most of them prefer to wear the native dress which is called Gabi or Netela and the naming is based on the thickness of the cloth.
The region is also well known in a cultural, historical, and religious heritage which mainly links them with the early civilization of the country. Lalibela, Fasil castle, Lake Tana, and other cultural ceremonies are few of the heritages the region owns.
Tribes Ethiopia: The Oromo
Oromo is the highly populated and largest ethnic group in the country.
33.8 % of the total country population is member and speaker of this group.
Afan Oromo is the language spoken in this group and it is the most widely spoken language in Africa next to Arabic, Hausa, and Swahili. The language is a family of Cushitic languages. They are located in southeastern part of Ethiopia, They also live in some part of North Kenya.
The highly developed oral tradition but they also developed their own writing system using the Latin alphabet called Qubee. The group divided into two major clans or tribes Ethiopia which are The Borena Oromo and Barentu Oromo.
The Borena Oromo is the pastoralist group and they occupy the southern part of the country and Northern Kenya. Shewa, Kafa, Illubabor, Welega, Jimma, and Sidamo belongs to the Borena Oromo. Whereas the Barentu Oromo occupied the eastern part of the Oromiya region.
Hararghe, Arsi, Ble, Dire Dawa, and other similar clans belong to the Barentu Oromo family. They have their own traditional religion called waaqeffanna but currently, there are also some other religions widely worshiped in the region.
The Oromo peoples are also known for their own governing system called the Gadaa system. The system is the icon of the tribe which makes them the first to practice democracy in the early period. The system guide and shapes the social, political, economic and cultural values of the people.
Generally, there is three main body of the gadaa system which are the General assembly (also called gmi gayo and it is the legislative body), Gadaa council (a collective member of the gadaa), and Qalu assembly (religious organ).
Ireecha is the major holiday they have and it is about thanking their god (Waqqaa) for making the season change from the rainy one to the sunny without any natural harm and accident.
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Tribes Ethiopia: The Tigre
Tigray is the third largest populated tribe in the country next to oromiya and Amhara. The tribe has 4.9 million people across the region and the country.
They are located in the northern highland of the country and settled high plateau. Tigrigna is the official language of the tribe that belong to Semitic language family and it is highly related to Hebrew, Arabic and Amharic language.
Amhara tribe also developed the verbal skill of narrating history and other significant event happened in the region which has historical significance to them.
Christianity dominates in the region and it is believed the ancient Axum was the route to introduce Christianity in the country. Islamism is also another major religion in the region next to Christianity.
Most holidays in the region are related to the church calendar and
major events. Tigray is rich in cultural, historical, and traditional heritage which makes the region the most preferable and advanced route for tourism.
Tribes Ethiopia: The South
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ for short SNNPR is the most diversified and home for different unique tribes Ethiopia and ethnic group in Ethiopia.
There are over 45 indigenous ethnic groups in the region which makes it a bit hard to study the individual group because for some of the tribes in Ethiopia there are no specific documented materials. Sidama is the largest ethnic group in the region, there are about three million people in this group.
They are located in the southern part of the country around a city called hawassa. Most of the people are protestant. Sidaamu-Afoo is the language they speak. Gurage is also the other largest and populated tribe in the region and 2.5 % of the total population of the country belongs to this group.
They are located in the southwest part of Ethiopia and the tribe is known for its variety of cultural foods. Wolayta is the third most populated region in the region. There are about 1.7 million people in the region which is 2.3 % of the total country’s’ population.
There are some few interesting tribe lives in the southern part of Ethiopia as well. Mursi, Bodi, Hamar, and Surma tribes Ethiopia are one of those few interesting and unique tribes in the region. The Mursi tribe has about 7,500 people and they have a tribal lifestyle.
In general, their beliefs, language, and practice falls into a category called Animism. Many people find it odd and inappropriate to make Mursi women wear lip plate which is their strong way of showing
beauty combined with body painting.
Tribes Ethiopia: Hamar
The Bodi tribes Ethiopia are located near to or same place where the Mursi people reside. They have a ceremony of choosing the fattest man of the year and to be champion of this ceremony most men spend their time eating foods with high calories to get fat and be the champion.
Usually, this event takes place around June. Hamer is another
the tribal clan who also lives in the southern region of the country.
Most tourists and Ethiopian are familiar with the name hammer and their tradition and culture as well.
One of their unique and interesting tradition is bull jumping. Bull-jumping is a ceremony which men do to show and test age transition. The Surma tribe is also a tribal clan who has a similar lifestyle
with the above-mentioned tribes Ethiopia.
All the above tribes Ethiopia live in a similar way; they have a traditional lifestyle and maintain their life by raising goats and some other cattle.
Tribes Ethiopia: The Afar
Afar tribe is the other highly populated clan in the country. They are located in the northeast part of Ethiopia in a region called afar. Their official language is afar language and it is Cushitic family language.
Almost all people of this tribe are Islam. They live a nomadic lifestyle and raise cattle and camels. Their land is extremely arid consisting of stone and sand. Culturally their tribe is classified into two subclasses which are The Asaimara and the Adoimara.
The former one is commonly known as a red class consisting of a noble and highly respected members of the clan. The later one
also known as the white class which consists of the common dweller of the tribe.