The location the country exited, affected the Ethiopia weather both directly and indirectly. With 13 months of cool sunshine, the weather of Ethiopia is very comfortable and habitable. Even though Ethiopia is located in the tropical zone or the sub-Saharan zone, the mountainous terrain has helped the city maintain temperate or cooler weather throughout the year.
Ethiopia, therefore, has a wide range of altitude difference from 4550m above sea level to 125m below sea level. This altitude range made it possible for the occurrence of different kinds of climates in one country.
The location closer to the equator gave Ethiopia a 12 hour day and 12 hours a night and a consistent temperature throughout the day and throughout the year.
This article gives insight into the weather conditions in different regions of Ethiopia, as well as the weather in different seasons.
How Many Climate Zone Are In the Ethiopia Weather?
Based on an altitude range, Ethiopia can further be classified into 3 major regions: plateau region, arid region, and the desert region.
The Plateau Region the Ethiopia Weather
The plateau region has an altitude greater than 1500m. This region is mostly found in the western and eastern highlands. The Ethiopia weather in this region is cold, cool, or warm depending on the altitude.
There is a small amount of rain from November to February. A high amount of rainfall from June to September.
The yearly precipitation ranges from 1000mm to 2400mm.
The central and northern part of the plateau region experiences a bimodal rainfall pattern from the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. The rain in the summer, from June to September, mainly comes from the Atlantic. While the mild rain comes from the Indian Ocean between February and May.
As we go further north the number of rainfall drops rapidly. The western and southwestern parts of this region, experience a unimodal rainfall pattern that comes from the Indian Ocean and merges with the one that comes from the Atlantic. The measure of precipitation and the length of the blustery season diminishes as it goes toward the north. On the other hand, in the southeast region, there are two rainy seasons. However, they are moderate rainy seasons. From March to May and from October to November, but this rains might not occur in some years leading to draught in the southeast regions.
Even though Ethiopia is geographically located near to the equator, the high altitude made it possible to have weather that is similar to the temperate zone. Looking closely at this highland region, the altitude has made three weather conditions: warm to cool to semi-humid with altitude that ranges from 1500m-2500m. The annual rainfall ranges from 1200mm- 2400mm and annual average temperature varying between 16°c and 20°c.
The second the Ethiopia weather condition is cool to cool the humid zone with an altitude range from 2500- 3200. This zone has an annual rainfall of 1000mm to 2000mm and annual average temperature varying between 10°c and 16°c.
The third Ethiopia weather condition is the cold moist temperate zone with an altitude greater than 3200. This zone has an annual temperature of less than 10°c. Besides, annual rainfall averages less than 800mm, which is the least for this region.
Arid Region: the Ethiopia Weather
The second region is the arid region found in the eastern part of Ethiopia. This region has an altitude range from 500m- 1500m. This region has an annual average temperature ranging from 20°c to 28°c. The annual rainfall of this region drops below 800mm annually. There are only two months, July and august which rains heavily.
Desert Region: the Ethiopia Weather
The third region is the desert region. This region has an altitude that is less than 500m to 125m below sea level the lowest level in the world. This region is mostly the northeastern part of the country, which is the lowland areas of afar. The average annual temperature ranges from 28°c to 34°c. The annual rainfall is less than 400mm. there is only one rainy season and on this season, little rainfall.
How Many Seasons are in Ethiopia?
There are four different season types in Ethiopia:
The first one is the two-season type. Two-season type is the kiremt (wet) season and the bega (dry) season. This type of season is most dominant in the western parts of Ethiopia.
The second one is the bi- two-season type. This season type has two wet seasons between March and May and September and November. And two dry seasons that occur between the two wet seasons. This type of season occurs in the south and southeast part of Ethiopia.
The third type is the undefined season. This type occurs in the northern part of Ethiopia specifically the low lands or the rift valley.
The last one is the three-season type. This season type occurs in the central and the southwestern parts of Ethiopia where the annual rainfall ranges between 1000mm and 2000mm or even 3000mm in the western part.
Three Seasons in the Ethiopia Weather
The three seasons in these season types in Ethiopia Weather are kiremt, belg, and bega. Kiremt season is from June to September in the central highlands.
And July and August in the northern highlands are wet seasons and in most parts of the country, except for the eastern part of Ethiopia. This is the season where most of the annual rainfall is acquired in this part of the Ethiopia weather.
The subsequent season is the bega season and the beginning of this season is also known as harvest season. The Bega is the season from November to February. This season is dry windy and sunny. The dry and cool wind is pushed to Ethiopia due to the Sahara and Siberian high pressures cause dry season. This is why the days of the bega season are sunny while the nights are cold. Nevertheless, in the eastern parts of Ethiopia, this is not the case. Lowland areas like Ogaden get some rainfall during this season.
The third season is the Belg season. Belg is from March to May. It’s sometimes known as a small rain season. This rain will prepare the land for the Kiremt season farming by adding moisture to the soil. On the transition between Belg and Kiremt, the rain might stop for one month. From mid-May to the mid of June. However, sometimes there are no breaks.
Conclusion, the Ethiopia Weather
The Ethiopia weather rapidly changes from place to place due to the altitude differences. The northern part of the country, for example, has the highest altitude and is usually cold and rainy. A few kilometers southwest is the Afar region, 125 meters below the sea level, and one of the hottest places in the world.
The great rift valley is also warm due to lower altitudes. The valley runs from the northeast to the southwest part of the country creating a different and unique climatic zone. Cities that cross this valley are usually warm and humid.
Addis Ababa, on the other hand, has one of the best Ethiopia weather. The highest daily temperature goes up to 26 degrees and the lowest up to 12. Recently, due to the assumed global warming and rapid development in the city, the weather is warmer from march to June.